(1) NSF- 3 competitive areas: (1) Biological collections, (2) Broadening participations, (3) plant genomics. Comes with a stipend + research money.
(2) La Kretz post-doctoral fellowship- this is associated with the La Kretz center at UCLA. They have only been doing this one for the past 2 or 3 years. Typically, they only take 1-2 new post-docs a year. This has a stipend + some research money.
(3) Smith Fellow- This fellowship comes out of the Smithsonian- and is highly geared towards conservation. You need to explicitly say what your conservation plan. About 100 people apply a year, and only 4-5 people get it. Super competitive. If you can get your hands on a the application of a successful fellow- that might increase your chances of getting it because you will have seen the efforts they went to. This seems to have a coherent cohort of fellows and brilliant conservation biologists.
(4) Beckman Fellowship- For lifes ciences, including natural and life sciences- but they don't emphasize that. I don't know too much about this one- a friend just mentioned it to me in passing, but you could be located anywhere according to her. This has stipend + research money.
(5) Presidential post-doctoral fellowship- This fellowship is shared among the UC schools, Michigan universities, and I think 1 other state. This fellowship strongly emphasizes broadening impacts. This fellowship is particularly competitive- because they typically try to recruit fellows as professors after the postdoctoral fellowship is over.
(7) Nature conservancy- Mostly linked to climate change research. I don't know too much about this one. I think the application proposal is super short [1 page].
(8) AAAS fellowship- if you are interested in policy and science- this is the fellowship for you. Competitive and you might have to move to DC. You are essentially paired with an agency or department and learn about the politics and do science.
(9) SESYNC postdoctoral fellowship- SESYNC is a synthesis center [similar to NCEAS] in Annapolis, Maryland.
(10) NIMBioS postdoctoral fellowship- This fellowship is geared towards merging math and science- and similar to SESYNC and NCEAS- it is a synthesis center
(11) USGS Mendenhall research fellowship- This fellowship typically has subcategories- but it doesn't look like they are up yet for this year. I don't think I qualified under any of they categories- so I didn't apply.
(12) USGS Powell Center synthesis grant- I've had collaborators apply for this one- I think 25 people apply a year, and they only give out 1 or 2. I don't know too much about this one, but again more math geared.
(13) Look on the ecolog listserv. They always advertise for post-doctoral fellowship hirings. They are very specific postings- but might be worth just looking over everyday.
(14) Berkeley Miller fellowship. These fellowships are awarded to people who show great promise in their field and who have shortly completed their PhD when they apply.
(15) NCEAS postdoctoral fellowship. NCEAS is the world's first science synthesis center and it was launched in 1995. Fellows gain great access to infrastructure and support.
(16) Smithsonian tropical research institute fellowships. 3 year postdoc with research money in Panama!
(17) Smithsonian museum fellowships. Looks like a lot of opportunities here!
(18) Smithsonian environmental research center fellowships. More opportunities!
There are likely other postdoctoral fellowships in biology that I have forgotten, but as I come across them- I will keep updating the list.
Hope this helps! And good luck!
(19) Quantitative postdocs opportunities in the US. This is a compiled spreadsheet by Dr. Allison Barner.
(20) L'Oreal postdoctoral fellowship. Note this only provides research funds, not stipend.
(21) FIU Distinguished postdoctoral scholar. Along with this fellowship- I highly encourage people to look into the school they are interested at working at to see if there are similar opportunities.
(22) National Institute of Health postdoctoral scholarships.
(23) Center for Disease Control postdoctoral scholarship.
(24) American Museum of Natural History. These fellowships are mostly in evolution and taxonomy, but possible for conservation
(25) Liber Ero Fellowships. This is like the Smith Fellowship but only for Canadians.
(26) Miller Fellowship at University of California, Berkey
(27 LSA Collegiate Fellowship at University of Michigan